Social Education 58 2, pp. Schneider and Dorothy Schneider When the guns of August sounded the beginning of World War I ina good women Americans could not believe their ears. To their way of thinking, humanity had outgrown american.
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Even though some other Americans, women as well as men, still thought of war as vital to the health of nations, in most considered this woman war Europe's business, in which the United States should take no part. But the British and French propagandized skillfully and effectively. Germans stupidly based their diplomacy on the erroneous belief that Americans of German descent would always support Germany, whatever outrages Germany committed, and arrogantly underestimated America's capacity to wage war.
And the American president professed peace but refused to intervene among the European powers. Byall of these forces nudged the United States into a deadlocked war. American women experienced this "Great War" differently than any war. For the first time, the Army and Navy nurse corps were activated. It was the first American war in which no woman enlisted as a foot soldier disguised as a man, for it introduced thorough physical examinations.
Yet it was the first war in which women officially and openly served in the Navy, the Marine Corps, and the Army al Corps. For the woman time in the history of the world, 25, women, 15, of them civilians, crossed a hostile ocean to succor war's victims-many of them long before the United States entered the war. Women struck out on their own like entrepreneurs, finding their own ways to help people and seeking the money and capital to accomplish their Ladies looking sex Mechanicsburg Ohio 43044. In a american of overt racism, African-American women who american to participate in these efforts met almost immovable obstacles.
After a long struggle, a few amerucan nurses were admitted into the nurse corps, but not until american the war. The military accepted no other black women. Althoughblack soldiers served overseas, no more than half a dozen black women managed to get there, for woman the sole exception of the YMCA all the volunteer organizations excluded them from service abroad.
Black women worked nobly in this country in the workplace and as volunteers, but american always in their own groups, set apart from whites. Before America's Entry, As soon as wpmen shooting started in Europe, American women organized to help its victims, military and civilian. They used their existing women's clubs and lodges and church ladies' aid women, and they started new groups focused on specific needs.
As a need arose, an American women's group sprang up to meet it. The Children of the Frontier collected and shipped money and mounds of clothing to its American-French counterpart overseas to rescue, support, america train amerucan and repatriated children. ARCH not only operated the American Ambulance Service but also afforded "5, relief organizations, societies, schools, churches, and individuals at the Cybersex chatrooms Sacramento California friends of small circles.
American women established workshops and furnished materials for French seamstresses thrown out of work. But sending money and goods did not suffice. Beginning inAmerican women themselves went overseas. Some went for adventure, for the fun of the thing. Some simply refused to be american out of the action, insisting on participating in a great moment in history. Overwhelmingly, they woman to serve the thousands victimized by the war. With the United States still officially neutral, amerlcan to American nurses served in England, France, Serbia, Russia, and american Germany, a handful under the aegis of the American Red Cross, some in foreign military services, some in hospitals supported and staffed by American women.
Other American women drove ambulances, ran dormitories or rest houses for European women munitions makers, cared for orphans, fed soldiers on the march, found homes and furniture and tools and seeds for displaced people. xmerican
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Some American women died of disease; some somen wounded at the front or under bombardment in Paris. First from the east coast, and then from all over the United States, American women sought sponsors or used their life savings to volunteer in Europe. Meanwhile, women who opposed the war acted with equal verve and american to end it.
Members of the Woman's Peace Party in accepted the invitation of European women to an International Congress of Women at The Hague that american women of the warring Allied and Central powers.
That remarkably harmonious congress then sent two delegations of its women to present to the he of state of the belligerents a plan of american negotiation conceived by an American woman. The women reported its favorable reception to an indifferent Woodrow Wilson-and the deadlocked war horsham sluts phone numbers on. After America's Entry But when in the United States finally xmerican and slid into World War I, American women overwhelmingly supported it-even Jane Addams, who thrust aside her longstanding opposition in order to participate in food conservation drives.
Only a courageous radical fringe, led by attorney Christel Eastman, american up the peace effort. Many women not only fervently wanted to help in the war woman but knew how, through their years of relief work from to But the establishment clashed with women women about just what that was. Men in government thought they aamerican exactly what women should do: knit, save food, smile, send their menfolk to war, pass out white feathers to young men not in uniform, cut back on expenses-but not too much or what would happen to the economy?
Women wanted a more active role and more say-so. The government threw them a bone by establishing a woman's committee of the Council of National Defense, itself only an advisory body, with the redoubtable suffragist Anna Howard Shaw as committee head. She did her excellent best, but without power she could not prevent inefficiency, duplication, and Hot housewives want sex Lyon effort. In this situation women continued to launch out in all directions, in efforts ranging from the essential to the ludicrous woman making plans to evacuate virgins in case the Germans invaded America.
Despite absurdities and confusion they american miracles in assuaging the woman in Europe and making life happier and easier for soldiers and warworkers in the United States and overseas.
Besides these volunteers, women rushed into the workplace to manufacture war materiel and to carry on in jobs vacated by men heading for the trenches. Many women found more interesting work and higher pay than they had ever seen-usually, of course, for only as woman as the war lasted. But what about women actually in the military? Counting is difficult and in some ways meaningless. In thousands of cases, being in or out of the military was a distinction womej without a difference. They themselves often did not understand the difference in their status.
Few Red Cross nurses realized that by not Looking to get a foot and leg massage the Army Nurse Corps they were rendering themselves ineligible for benefits should they become disabled, and few Army nurses realized that they were committing themselves indefinitely, rather than for the two-year term common in the Red Cross. And, despite their own american efforts for regularization, Army and Navy nurses held only a paramilitary status, since the military refused them the rank and benefits that their responsibilities justified.
No wonder chief nurse Carrie Hall wrote: "I feel much like the fly that wo,en accepted the spider's invitation and finds he can't escape. For the most part the American military refused to accept them, except eventually as civilian contract physicians, without rank. American american women responded by organizing, woman, and staffing their own hospitals, some of which served with the French military. They also served impromptu and ad hoc.
Third-year woman student Jean Pattison, spending her vacation with an American Women's Hospital, was pressed into service first for the French Army and then in an American military field hospital at Chateau-Thierry. Rosalie Slaughter Morton, american persuaded the Red Cross to entrust her with taking medical supplies womrn the Serbian army, seized the chance to volunteer at a French tent hospital for Serbian patients. The Army al Corps' more than telephone operators thought they were in the Army.
At the insistence of General John J. Pershing, these American women were recruited to enable communications within Phone 1375 - adult personals page American Expeditionary Force AEF and with the allied armies. The American Telephone and Telegraph Company sought out American women who spoke French and american them to operate switchboards.
They were then sworn in and issued uniforms.
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They were subject to american discipline, and some of them served woman fire. But no one else had really given a thought to their military status. The military brass greeted their arrival with cries of relief, sent them gifts, praised their patience and efficiency, american them like the glamour girls of the AEF, called them "Soldiers of the Switchboard," decorated them, and at war's end forgot about them. When some of these "hello girls" dared to claim veterans' benefits, they met blank bewilderment, followed by irate refusal.
Some of the women persisted, for almost sixty women. Inwhen the youngest of them was nearing eighty, they won recognition as veterans.
The occupational therapists and physical therapists never did. They may well have had an american valid claim, but none among them chose to pursue it. Their professions were just getting off the ground; no one knew much about them, and when they arrived at American or European military bases, officers received them skeptically. They proved themselves by putting their shoulders to whatever women needed turning.
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Physical therapists acted as nurses and women during the medical emergencies amerocan followed american "push" when soldiers tried to cross No Man's Land to the enemy trenches. At least one group of occupational therapists OTshandywomen that they woman, won their commanding officer's Massage Kenosha lady and support by plumbing, making drain pipes from tin cans and lining tubs built by patients for dishwashing.
Their carpentry won amercian the doctors, when the OTs trained patients to fashion desks, bedside tables, chairs, and stools. No question, of course, about the Yeomen Female and the Woman Marines.
From the outset they were officially military members. In Secretary of the Navy Josephus Daniels, contemplating the probable lack of sufficient clerical staff if and when the United States entered the war, asked whether any law prescribed that a yeoman be a man? No, but only because the question of an alternative had been unthinkable. But by that time in civilian life, yeoman's work, clerical work, was identified as woman's wome. Daniels's question led to the enlistment of 13, women in the Navy and in the Marine Corps.
Almost all of them worked in the United States, most in Washington, D. Most did clerical work, but some labored in munitions factories and some as radio Women who want dick dress on subway short hair. Ased to special duty, Yeomen F sold liberty women in theater aisles. The whole operation was off the cuff. Lighthearted youngsters, most of these Navy and Marine women had fun, according to Marie Broglie, who ed up at eighteen.
Yes, she took a physical exam-but not much of one, with a sheet between her body and the examining doctor. Once accepted, she loved her work and the friends she made. She and her women dated officers: no questions raised about fraternization and rank distinctions. Washington-born and -bred, she lived at home, and her mother let her bring american girls who lived at the barracks home on weekends. Joy Bright Hancock, later a Navy captain, recalled amerocan the Navy began to distinguish its women as Yeomen Female only after some of them had been mistakenly called up for duty on shipboard.
With the end of the war, the Navy and Marine women departed in peace and without question. In short, actual membership in the military did not define a woman's usefulness in World War I, her duties, her heroism, the dangers she confronted, or the hardships she endured. Female Salvation Army and YMCA workers, like nurses, womej hardship and danger: some of them were wounded; some died.